nZEB technology guideline is online

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Different technologies are necessary to achieve the energy standard of nZEBs.​​ They can be summarised in three​​ main categories​​ (i)​​ Passive Energy Efficiency solutions, (ii)​​ Active Energy Efficiency solutions​​ and (iii)​​ Renewable​​ Energies. All approaches/ technologies are needed in order to realise nZEBs. And all of them play a major role in the CRAVEzero frontrunner buildings!

An excellent thermal insulation​​ and air-tightness of the building are of major importance, which can be seen in the rather low U-values of the building envelope elements in the case study buildings (opaque elements​​ between​​ 0.07 and 0.25​​ W/(m²K), windows mainly between 0.7 and 1.2 W/(m²K)).​​ In addition to adequate insulation, shading, usable thermal mass, natural ventilation and passive cooling possibilities are essential to minimise the energy demand of the buildings.

For the supply of the remaining energy demand for heating and cooling, highly efficient technologies using – if applicable – renewable energies should be installed. In the case study buildings, mainly heat pumps and district heating with low specific emissions are used – in several cases in combination with solar thermal. Boilers only play a minor role (see figure below). In addition and for the integration of renewable energies, in most buildings thermal storages are installed.

Concerning renewable energies, solar technologies and specifically PV are the dominant technologies used in the CRAVEzero frontrunner buildings (see figure below). Both​​ PV and solar thermal​​ are well developed and relatively easy to install on or at buildings.​​ They do and will play a major role in nZEBs as these buildings are only possible with the use of onsite renewable technologies.

A detailed description of the technologies installed in the CRAVEzero case study buildings can be found in the recently published Guideline II: nZEB Technologies available here.

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