Existing nZEB business models

Below, a number of business models found in the major European markets are described using a BM profile. This contains some of the most relevant business model building blocks following Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010), such as:

  • Value proposition,
  • Customer relationship and segment,
  • Revenue streams and cost structure

Part of the analysed business models were provided by the contributing partners of CRAVEzero (BM1-17). The other business models have been described by the partners as well, based on the information found on the respective companies’ websites. Some companies have provided their own BMs. However, it is not guaranteed that the information have been understood and filled into the profiles correctly and holistically.



Large parts of the report are based on information of business models that belong to companies which are not contributing to the CRAVEzero project. The information have been retrieved from the respective websites. Therefore, it cannot be guaranteed that statements made in the course of this report are entirely correct.

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