The increasing share of fluctuating renewable energy generation in the electricity grids requires technical measures, new market designs and models to balance generation and demand for electricity on the demand and supply side. As buildings are major energy consumers in the energy system and electricity for heating, domestic hot water and cooling, as well as on-site electricity generation from renewables are increasing, the integration of building energy systems/ buildings in the energy system is gaining importance. Renewable electricity is generated on-site, stored in batteries, which could also be used for balancing the local distribution networks, heat-pumps and electrical vehicles are new electrical consumers in buildings with relatively high connected power,…there are many new and already established technologies, which have to be integrated into the system and be operated in a way stabilizing the electricity grids.
There are several different options, flexibility goals and KPIs discussed in the field of energy efficiency and flexibility. Furthermore, there are different options and needed technologies to provide flexibility. In the CRAVEzero report ‘Energy flexible building managing models’, these are described in detail. Furthermore, technologies and different methods were applied in some of the CRAVEzero case study buildings. The options are compared using three different approaches/ KPIs, namely: